Priests are provided in their text-books of College days with reliable guides dealing directly and indirectly with liturgy. Hence, some of the books quoted here may already be favourites with many readers; but, perhaps, some books in the list may be brought to the notice of students of liturgy for the first time, and may be useful in introducing priests and church students to easy, pleasant paths in liturgical studies. The prices quoted may be useful to book-buyers,

1. Dom Gueranger, The Liturgical Year (1895, Duffy, Dublin, 16 vols. £3 9s.)–This work is a favourite with all lovers of liturgy, It studies and comments on the Church's liturgy day by day, week by week. It gives readers of the Missal and the Breviary a new interest and an additional fervour in their daily prayers. It is a standard work and holds its own wonderfully against all competitors.

2. Cours De Liturgie Romaine Le Breviare, L'abbe Bernard, Sulpician (Paris. 1887, 2 vols, 7 francs). This is a text-book written with great care, showing fine scholarship and deep piety. It is the work of a skilled teacher.

3. Le Breviare Romain, Commente par L'abbe Maugere. Paris. 1887, 6 francs.—A very concise and useful work, which I have used often in compiling my book.

4. The articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia, on the Breviary and liturgy generally.

5. Duchesne, Christian Worship (London. 1904. 10s.). Very readable and serviceable to students of early Church history.

6. Battifol, History of the Roman Breviary. (London, 1912. 15s.)

7. Biron-Baumer, Histoire du Breviaire. (Paris. 2 vols. 11 francs.)

8. Baudot, The Roman Breviary (London. Cath. Truth Society. Price 4s.6d.)

Monsignor Battifol's book is well and favourably known. It is in English, and has had a large circulation. It received searching and severe criticism from Dom Baumer, the author of Geschichte des Breviers. Baumer's work (translated into French by Biron) is a work showing wonderful industry, learning and critical acumen. The great German Benedictine was aided in several parts of his work by Mr. E. Bishop, the English liturgiologist, who intended to translate the work into English. Dom Baudot's book gives in concise form the results of the labours of Battifol and Baumer. The book is readable, accurate, and is excellent value for the price.

9. The Calendar. The introductory matter given in the Breviary suffices for the wants of the ordinary student of liturgy. But those who wish for an exhaustive study of times and seasons may safely read Kalendarium Manuale, Pars I. Festa immobilia, Editio secunda; price 9 lire; and Pars. II. Festa Mobilia, price 13 lire, by Rev. N. Nilles, S.J. Calendar study is highly interesting, and the articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia and Father Thurston's articles in the Month on Calendar affairs are always instructive.

The New Psalter (Myers and Burton. London. 1915. 3s.6d.) is a very useful and practical help to the understanding and application of the new rubrics. I have quoted several times from its pages,

Heortology, a History of Christian Festivals from their Origin to the Present Day, by Dr. Kellner, Professor of Catholic Theology in Bonn, is a translation of a text-book written for German students preparing to pass Government examinations. It is a fine book, and if a student of liturgy knew its contents well he would have no poor knowledge of this and, incidentally, of other questions of liturgy. Gueranger, Duchesne and Kellner constitute the beginnings of a student's liturgical library (London, Keegan, Paul. 1908. Price 10s. 6d.). An excellent little volume by Father McKee, dealing with the same subject, is published by Catholic Truth Society, London, 2s, 6d. It is introductory and elementary.

10. Thousands of works on the Psalms have been published. But any priest or student who studies Steenkiste's work on the Psalms learns nearly all that is needed to recite his psalms digne, attente ac devote. His work is a mine of useful, pious, and, in the main, accurate comment on the inspired text. Breviary students studying this commentary need little else to help them to admire, to understand and to use their psalmody in a prayerful manner. Steenkiste, Liber Psalmorum (3 vols, Bruges. 1886. Price 15s.).

The New Psalter of the Roman Breviary, by Fillon, S.S. (London, Herder. 1915. Price 6s.).

Father Fillon was consultor to the Biblical Commission. His notes are short and useful to those who, having studied the psalms, can recall their meaning by a few brief hints. Its comments are too brief, but it gives the Latin text, English translation, notes on psalms and newly added canticles, and is arranged in the order in which they stand in the Pian psaltery.

Sing Ye to the Lord, by Rev. R. Eaton (London, Catholic Truth Society. 2 vols. 4s. each).

In these books the leading idea or ideas of the Psalms are taken up, and beautiful explanations and spiritual readings given. The books are delightful reading, and give Breviary readers, old and young, fresh thoughts on psalms which through familiarity and constant repetition may have lost some of their pious meaning and prayerfulness.

Books of Scripture commentary by non-Catholic writers should be read with caution, and often ecclesiastical permission for their perusal must be sought. Neale and Littledale's Commentary on the Psalms (6 vols. London. 1867) is a compilation by two Anglican scholars, from the commentators of the Middle Ages. The wonderful piety of these men of old, saints and scholars, their beautiful comments, their glowing fervour, and above all their knowledge and love of the Bible text, surprise us all. Sometimes, of course, these mediaevalists run into far-fetched, outlandish comments, but the compilers give always the comments of the Masters, St. Thomas, St. Bede, etc.

Very many metrical arrangements of the Psalms by non-Catholic authors exist in English. Most of these metrical efforts are very poor, unreliable in giving the sense, and awkward and ungainly in poetic forms. An interesting book is Prothero's Psalms in Human Life. The author was a Protestant, hence his numbering of the Psalms may at first sight be confusing,

Sermons fresh and beautiful, full of unction, and full of texts, sublime and practical, are to be found in the Psalms. A work, little known in our islands, is Monsignor Doublet's fine work, Psaumes etudies en vue de la Predication (3 vols. 8th Edition. 12s.).

A charming booklet, dealing chiefly with the Psalms as prayers, is Rolland Gosselin's Prieres et Meditations bibliques (Paris. 1917. Bauchesne. 3s.).

10. Hymns. Immense labour has been devoted to the study of Latin sacred poetry. The Analecta Hymnica in 60 huge volumes testifies to the learning and zeal of its Jesuit authors. Ordinary mortals content themselves with lesser works, such as Pimont's Hymnes du Breviare Romain (Paris Poussielgne. 2 vols, 12-1/2 francs), or with La Poesie du Breviaire, Les Hymns, by l'abbe C. Albin. Price 6 francs. The opinions and judgments in neither book are infallible; and some of Pimont's findings have been roughly criticised and sometimes rejected. But both books give good, sound knowledge of Breviary hymns and thus help to make their recitation a pious and a rational exercise, not a mechanical, soulless labour.

Translation of poetry has ever been a study and a pastime. Every cleric is familiar with the prose translations which aided his boyhood's labours in rendering the poetry of Horace and Euripides into modern speech. But prose efforts are one thing, and poetical efforts are another, and just as many have laboured to present Virgil and Homer in modern language, in metre, in rhyme, in rhythm; so, many poets and verse-makers, in different ages and in different climes, have laboured to turn into modern poetic form and into their own national tongue the poems of the Breviary. The Breviary hymns have met with several good, kind, translating poets; but very often they have been rudely handled by well-meaning verse builders. Passing over in charitable silence the indifferent efforts of those people, it may interest some students of the Breviary to read the efforts of well-known authors to translate the liturgy, its anthems, responses, collects, hymns, into good English.

(1) The Day Hours of the Church.—A translation of the Horae Diurnae, with the psalms, etc., arranged according to the reform of Pope Pius X. This is a good book, giving in parallel columns on the same page, Latin and English translations. It includes the very best hymn translations by Catholic authors, John Dryden, Cardinal Newman, Father Caswall, etc. (Burns & Gates. 8s.). This book is intended for the use of the laity, and, owing to the strict regulations issued for the printing of the new Roman Breviary, this book may not lawfully be used to replace the Breviarium Romanum. But, as it is a complete translation of the little Hours of the Church, it is a very useful aid to the attentive and devout recitation of the Hours. A look at its pages before each hour's recitation, or a glance to see the meaning of some verse of psalm or hymn will repay anyone. It is a wonderfully careful production, has a beautiful format, and is good value at the price marked.

(2) Annus Sanctus, by Orby Shipley (Burns & Oates. 1884). This book contains the work of many Catholic translators, and their translations of Breviary hymns vary in merit. It contains a good introduction, the translations attributed to Dryden, and it gives some things which are always interesting, the efforts of several minds, poets and verse-makers, to render the same Latin hymn into English verse. It includes verses from several Irishmen.

(3) Hymns from the Roman Breviary, translated (Catholic Truth Society, London. Price 1s. 6d). A good selection from Catholic and non-Catholic translators. The translations of Dr. Neale, Anglican—held to be superior in fidelity and in poetic form to that of any English translator—are given in this booklet. Neale's Collected Hymns (Hodder & Stoughton, 6s.) are useful for translators and composers of vernacular hymns. But his work is, I think, over-rated.

(4) Other translations of Breviary hymns are found in the collections of hymns used in Anglican churches: Hymns, Ancient and Modern; The English Hymnal; The Hymner from the Sarum Breviary (Plain-song and Mediaeval Society, London); Songs of Sion, by Woodward, etc.

For advanced study of liturgy, Dom Cabrol's Dictionaire D'Archeologie Chrietienne Et Liturgie (Paris: Letouzey et Ane) is indispensable. Its study delights and consoles those who possess it.


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